Early Detection of Renal Damage Using Kidney Injury Molecule -1 (KIM-1) In Dogs Associated with Dehydration

Document Type : Review Artical


1 Department of internal medicine and infectious diseases, faculty of veterinary medicine, cairo university

2 Department of internal medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University


Background: Dehydration may be associated with a declined kidney function and serious signs of kidney injury. The kidney response differently to dehydration levels which are not yet known. Aim: detection of the effect of dehydration on kidney functions levels and kidney injury biomarkers in dehydrated dogs and compare it to normal. Material and methods: A total number of 12 dogs were enrolled in this study (6 dehydrated and 6 controls). Inclusion criteria was presence of history of fluid loss for 48-hour, dehydration stage based on clinical assessment and the assessment of urine specific gravity. Blood samples were withdrawn from each animal on Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid tube for hematology and plain tube to estimate total protein, albumin, BUN and creatinine. Ultrasonography was conducted on non-sedated dogs using a micro convex 5–8 MHz transducer. Urine samples were acquired through catheterization to determine urine specific gravity, then urine sediment was derived by centrifugation and commercially available Enzyme-linked immunoassay test was utilized to assess the levels of kidney injury molecule-1. Results: Hematological parameters showed non-significant elevation in packed cell volume in association with significant elevation in mean corpuscular volume were recorded in dehydrated dogs. Non-significant elevation in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total protein were recorded in dehydrated dogs compared with control dogs. Urinalysis showed significant elevation in urine specific gravity and KIM-1 (P value ≤0.05) in urine samples of dehydrated dogs compared to control dogs. Conclusion, dehydration state might be impact the reading of urinary KIM-1 even in the absence of apparent azotemia.


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