Epidemiological Pattern and Diagnostic Approaches to Enterotoxaemia Among Young Ruminants in Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 5- elgeesh street, Kafrelsheikh University Kafrelsheikh

2 Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 9 Nadi El-Seid, 12618, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3 Veterinary Serum Vaccine Research Institute, El - Sekka El - Beda st. Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt

4 Clinical Studies Department , Colleg Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudia Arabia

5 Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt


Enterotoxaemia is responsible for high mortalities among young ruminants with severe economic losses to farmers. Using a structured questionnaire, Farmers’ knowledge and practices responsible for the spread of enterotoxaemia among ruminant species in 16 farms in Egypt were investigated. Also, 70 calves and lambs found to have died suddenly of haemorrhagic enteritis were examined post-mortem, and samples were collected from the intestine to isolate bacteriologically the causative agents. Toxins were identified in the intestinal contents of dead young ruminants and genes responsible for toxin production were identified in isolated Clostridium perfringens using multiplex PCR. Results showed a good knowledge of farmers on enterotoxaemia and they revealed that it is responsible for 25% of young ruminants’ mortalities despite the high vaccination coverage. Farmers mentioned that most cases occur in the winter season and after Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. Most farmers do not follow quarantine measures for newly purchased animals and do not select only to buy vaccinated animals. Cl. perfringens type A and alpha toxin only were identified from two dead calves samples, while Cl. perfringens type D and alpha and epsilon toxins were identified from all other dead lambs and calves samples. In conclusion, control of enterotoxaemia has to be considered especially in winter seasons and known times of FMD outbreaks. Cl. perfringens type A and Cl. perfringens type D is the predominant causative agent of enterotoxaemia in calves and lambs in the study area.


Main Subjects

Volume 54, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
The Scientific Conference of Kafr Elsheikh University (One World.......One Health, 5th– 8th October 2022)
November and December 2023
Pages 253-259
  • Receive Date: 12 November 2023
  • Revise Date: 03 December 2023
  • Accept Date: 04 December 2023