The Effects of Hormones on The eyes and Blurry Vision in Rabbits, Kittens, Rats, and Humans

Document Type : Review Artical


1 Department of Optical Techniques, Al-Noor University College, Mosul, Iraq

2 Department of Anesthesia Techniques, Al-Noor University College, Mosul, Iraq


This review explains that various hormones are chemical messengers affecting eyesight and vision. Several factors, including side effects, hormonal changes during pregnancy, and pharmaceuticals, which include hormone replacement treatment or oral contraceptives, can cause blurred vision. Furthermore, hormones like thyroid hormones, melatonin, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, prostaglandins, adrenaline, and noradrenaline can affect the function of the eyes and vision, and their imbalances or abnormalities can cause changes in vision, including blurry vision. Consequently, growth hormone (G.H.) plays an important role in the visual organs of birds, reptiles, and mammals. The importance of growth hormone in ocular function, both under normal physiological conditions and in abnormal pathological conditions, appears significant. In addition, stress can impact hormone levels and potentially lead to vision problems. Cortisol is a hormone that is secreted during stress times which has been studied in both wild and domestic cats. Hence, medical conditions such as diabetes can affect the ocular and visual systems through changes in hormone levels. So, the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin have an inhibitory effect on the visual cortex. Additionally, they inhibit the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. When excitations are induced for extended periods, this can result in inhibition. The results show significant differences between species that could affect their vision abilities. In conclusion, hormones play an important role in maintaining visual health and regulating any hormonal irregularities or dysfunctions that may arise in these systems. Thus, animals with hormonal systems like humans may experience blurry vision due to the effects of hormones on their eyes.


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