Curing of Citrobacter spp. Strains Antibiotic Resistance Harboring Plasmids Using Novel Physical, Chemical and Natural Substances

Document Type : Original Article


1 Nineveh Health Department, Al-Jumhuri Teaching Hospital, Mosul- Iraq

2 Biology Department, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul City, Iraq


The current study was conducted on four isolates of Citrobacter freundii  identified previously molecularly and registered in the Global GenBank under the names ALGH1(accession No. OQ703592),  ALGH2(accession No. OQ703593, ALGH3 (accession No. OQ703594),  and ALGH4(accession No. OQ703595), Antibiotics profile analysis was achieved against 12 antibiotics, all isolates showed 100% resistance to (tetracycline, Doxycycline and oxytetracycline),   whereas the isolates were sensitive to Amikacin, Trimethoprim, Nalidixic acid Norfloxaine, Levofloxacine and Ciprofloxacin. Curing experiments of these plasmids were achieved by physical( high temperature), chemical (urea) and natural substances by using  both  onion and garlic powder  in three concentration (1%,5%,10%), urea was effective curing  plasmids at concentrations of 200 and 400 µg/ml. 45°C successed  in curing   resistance plasmids. To our knowledge this study is considered the first one which recorded the using of onion and garlic powder in plasmid curing. As a result, the garlic in both the 5% and 10% concentrations was successful in curing the genes of both doxycycline and Tetracycline, whereas the onion failed in all concentrations. For all ALGH1,ALGH2&ALGH4 strains  of the Citrobacter , while sensitivity appeared all bacterial isolate spresented against (Oxytetracycline)  while the garlic as a curing  agent at a concentration of (10%) resulted in the curing of antibiotic resistance genes (Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline). This study aimed to cure plasmids from Citrobacter strains by using natural substances   of onion and garlic at varying concentrations.


Main Subjects

Volume 55, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
Special Issue Dr. Mahmoud F. Nawito (1939-2023)
November and December 2024
Pages 2107-2118
  • Receive Date: 13 February 2024
  • Revise Date: 19 March 2024
  • Accept Date: 20 March 2024