Analysis of Chukar Partridge Wing Morphology and Morphometry and their Implications in Flight Pattern and Behavior

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2 Department of anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul - Iraq


This study aims to investigate the attributes of wing morphology in Alectoris chukar birds and understand their influence on flight-related behaviors , ecology and aerodynamic capability . Ten adults healthy chukar partridge birds were used in this study, various morphometric parameters of the flattened wings were measured, including wing length, breadth, span, armwing length, handwing length, and wing area. To understand flight performance, the aerodynamic characteristics such as wing loading ratio and wing aspect ratio were calculated. While handwing index parameter used to understand the dispersal ability, feather measurements included the length, width, he inner and outer vanes length, and the length of the rachis in primaries and secondaries feathers. And for locomotion analysis a high-speed video camera used to track the wing orientation, and wing angle during the wingbeat cycle. The observations showed that the wing feathers were wide with tapered calamus. wings measurements revealed that the wing length was 24.32 ± 0.14 cm, and breadth was 13.56 ± 0.11 cm, the armwing length was 7.01 ± 0.84 cm, and the handwing length was 17.31 ± 0.99 cm, while the aspect ratio was 1.01 ± 0.17 g/cm² and the wing loading ratio was 2.21 ± 0.28. the feather length was 13.35 ± 0.9 cm, and 11.21 ± 0.18 cm in the primaries and secondaries respectively, bird fly 160 -180 meters with wing beats frequency 24.6±0.92 hertz. These data explain the relationship between wing morphology and the adaptability of the bird to different flying styles, ground foraging, and ecological distribution.


Main Subjects

Volume 55, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
Special Issue Dr. Mahmoud F. Nawito (1939-2023)
November and December 2024
Pages 1961-1974
  • Receive Date: 20 January 2024
  • Revise Date: 08 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 07 March 2024