Comprehensive Analysis of Chemical and Microbial Safety in Grilled Meat and Poultry from Baiji City Markets: A Focus on Red and White Varieties

Document Type : Original Article


1 College Education for Pure science / University Of Anbar

2 College of Dentistry/ University Of Anbar

3 Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit. Iraq, Tikrit

4 Anbar Directorate of Education, Anbar,Iraq

5 University of Anbar


The study investigated the chemical composition and pollution levels, including heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, and cobalt, and microbial contamination, in four types of grilled meat sold in the markets of Beiji City. The samples were collected from three different regions in the city between March 15, 2022, and mid-April. Results showed good levels of moisture, protein, and  fat in the studied meat samples by A.O.A.C. with the highest moisture content recorded in chicken kebab samples (72.81%) and the lowest moisture content recorded in chicken shawarma (69.32%). Protein levels ranged from 16.87% to 19.23%, with the highest level in beef kebab and the lowest level in chicken shawarma. Results of the study showed an increase in zinc levels in all samples, with the highest level recorded in beef kebab (7.738 ppm). Zinc levels in chicken kebab, beef shawarma, and chicken shawarma were 6.911 ppm, 6.780 ppm, and 6.036 ppm, respectively. Lead levels were high in all studied meat samples, ranging from 0.1334 ppm to 0.1444 ppm. The highest cobalt level was recorded in chicken shawarma at 0.067 ppm. Copper levels varied with the type of meat, with the highest level recorded in beef kebab at 5.251 ppm and the lowest level recorded in beef shawarma at 3.038 ppm. Cadmium levels were highest in chicken kebab at 1.600 ppm and lowest in chicken shawarma at 1.018 ppm. Beef shawarma and chicken kebab had total bacterial counts of 64.12 x 103 CFU/g and 48.26 x 103 CFU/g, respectively. Microbial pollution showed the highest total bacterial count in beef kebab at 86.13 x 103 colony-forming units (CFU)/g and the lowest in chicken shawarma at 33.14 x 103 CFU/g. We conclude from the results of our current study the high level of moisture in the tissues of chicken kebabs, and that the highest level of protein was in the tissues of chicken kebabs, as well as the highest percentage of fat in meat shawarma.


Main Subjects

Volume 55, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
Special Issue Dr. Mahmoud F. Nawito (1939-2023)
November and December 2024
Pages 1955-1960
  • Receive Date: 19 January 2024
  • Revise Date: 04 March 2024
  • Accept Date: 16 March 2024