Synergistic Effectiveness of Phoenix dactylifera Seed Extract with Some Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria In-vitro

Document Type : Original Article


1 University of Anbar

2 Department of Biology , Collage of Education for Girls , AL-Anbar University , Iraq


In the community and hospital settings, antibiotic resistance poses a significant 21st-century challenge. As a result, diverse therapeutic methods are imperative. Medicinal plants, known since ancient times, are gaining increased attention for treating bacterial infections. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effectiveness of Phoenix dactylifera seed extract, comparing it with antibiotics, and assessing its synergy with antibiotics against S. aureus. Various extract concentrations (10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) and antibiotics (Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, Piperacillin) were employed. 37 isolated bacteria samples were grown on Muller-Hinton agar, and the well diffusion method was applied. Results revealed Gentamicin as the most effective antibiotic, averaging 29. Phoenix dactylifera extract exhibited inhibitory effects on S. aureus, with the 100% concentration yielding the best results (average of 13.667). Synergism between Gentamicin and the 100% extract concentration surpassed individual antibiotics and varied extract concentrations, achieving an average of 33.667. The combined use of antibiotic, extract, and their synergy significantly reduced germ count. Evaluation of outcomes highlighted that the 100% extract plus HLG antagonist synergy produced the greatest bacterial elimination results. These findings support the concept that bacterial illnesses can be eradicated by employing antibiotics in concert with plant extracts. Future research on different bacteria should consider various extract concentrations.


Main Subjects

Volume 55, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
Special Issue Dr. Mahmoud F. Nawito (1939-2023)
November and December 2024
Pages 1949-1954
  • Receive Date: 19 January 2024
  • Revise Date: 28 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 12 March 2024