The Protective Effects of Acetyl L-Carnitine for The Offspring and Lactating Moms of Rats Received Bromocriptine

Document Type : Review Artical


1 Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

2 College of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

3 Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq


Mammary glands are only found in mammals and specialize in synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. The purpose of this study was to investigate protective effect of Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR) on lactating mothers and pups of rats receiving bromocriptine. Female rats(n=24) weighing (200-250g) were divided into four groups, 6 for each group: control group(G1) given distilled water, bromocriptine treated (G2) given orally bromocriptine (4 mg/kg), (ALCAR) treated groups(G3) take orally ALCAR (100 mg/kg) and the co-administrated group (G4) was treated orally with bromocriptine (4 mg/kg) and ALCAR (100 mg/kg) from pregnancy to weaning. Growth and physiological factors of pups; blood samples collection for growth and prolactin hormone estimation using ELIZA technology. At the end of experiments, animals were sacrificed, and mammary glands were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The results showed that the weight of the pups reduced significantly in bromocriptine and ALCAR, but did not differ from the control in 21 days of parturition. G2, G3, and G4 cause an increase in the period it takes for ear lobe, hair, teeth to grow in and eyes to open. Growth and prolactin hormone increase in G2 and increase in G4 in compared to G3. The histological changes of mammary glands showed G2 has atrophy and loss of secretory acini, interlobular ducts, and intralobular ducts. In conclusion, ALCAR moderately rescued the detrimental impacts of a decreased pups’ growth and physiological development of the sense and reproductive organs, which can reduce the negative effects of bromocriptine in mammary gland.


Main Subjects

Volume 55, Issue 7 - Serial Number 7
Special Issue Dr. Mahmoud F. Nawito (1939-2023)
November and December 2024
Pages 1889-1900
  • Receive Date: 22 January 2024
  • Revise Date: 17 February 2024
  • Accept Date: 07 March 2024