Virulence Genotyping Profiles of Cefazolin Resistance Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated From Milk and Milk Products in Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Laboratory, Higher Institute of Technology for Applied Health Science, Badr Institute for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Food Hygiene department, Veterinary medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt.


The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate, characteristics, genes related with virulence, and determination of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese, and ice cream. From July 2021 to May 2022, samples were obtained from popular markets, and street vendors in various places in Mansoura city, Dakahlia, Egypt. Milk, Karish cheese, and ice cream (50 samples each) were positive in 26 of 150 samples (17.3%) for Yersinia enterocolitica, with a higher prevalence in ice cream (26%). Among the 26 Y. enterocolitica isolates, three virulence genes (ail, inv, and yadA) had different frequency profiles. The inv gene was found in a significant majority of the strains tested (73.1%), followed by the ail gene (50%) and the yadA gene (26.9%). Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were estimated to have a high sensitivity rate ((96.2% each), followed by sulphamethoxazol-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol (92.3%), then cephalotin and kanamycin (84.6%), finally fosfomycin (73.1%). Interestingly, 53.8% of strains were identified as the multidrug resistance, with 11 different resistance patterns. Nineteen strains of Y. enterocolitica showed biofilm-forming ability, of which seven strains had the high biofilm-forming capacity and eight other strains of Y. enterocolitica had moderate biofilm-forming capacity. The discovery of presumably pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates from milk and milk products implies a hazard to consumer safety especially due to the occurrence of pathogenicity potential and antibiotic resistance which necessity the implementation of control measures. 


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