Bluetongue Disease in Small Ruminants in Palestine: A retrospective Study Between the period of 2005-2019

Document Type : Original Article



2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, An-Najah National University, PO Box:7, Nablus- Palestine


Small ruminant’s livestock industry provides a major source of livelihood for many people worldwide, particularly the rural poor in developing countries. Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable infectious non-contagious disease of the small ruminant that has considerable socioeconomic importance in livestock in Palestine. The objective of the current study was to investigate the epidemiological analysis of BT within small ruminants in Palestine over 14 years 2005 – 2019. The retrospective numbers of BT outbreaks, cases, and deaths from the World Organization for Animal Health were analyzed. The study indicated that BT is enzootic in Palestine, reported started from 2009. A total of 273 outbreaks include 1628 cases resulted in 351 deaths were reported. A total of 273 outbreaks, 1628 cases, and 351 deaths were recorded in small ruminants. The incidence rate average was 5.5%, and the average mortality rate was 1.6%. The case fatality rate ranged from 0.0- 39.29 % with an average of 20.2%. No vaccination practice was applied in Palestine. Temporal analysis obtained that BT is more endemic in the low-temperature season between September and December, with a higher peak in November, displaying `overwintering` of BTV in Palestine. At least five BTV serotypes BTV (2, 4, 5, 6 and 8) were continuously present in Palestine. Multiple serotypes were recorded in the same outbreak period increase the risk for re-assortment of individual BTV gene segments. Efficient data recording, enhance owner awareness, use of the vaccine and a systematic BT monitoring program are required to control and eradicate the disease.